Manuscript, cursive, and keyboarding have advantages at different ages. Handwriting involves cognitive and motor skills—and influences reading, written expression, and critical thinking. Sequential hand movements activate brain regions associated with thinking, working memory, and language. A note-taking study showed better comprehension and retention for handwriters. Elementary students composing by hand wrote faster longer pieces. Research demonstrates effectiveness of explicit, integrated, handwriting instruction from kindergarten to high school.
Nancy Cushen White has no relevant financial or nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Ed.D., CALT-QI, BCET , LDT-TX , Certified Structured Literacy Dyslexia Specialist,
Clinical Professor; Teacher and Program Consultant-Department of Special Education [Retired]-San Francisco Unified School District; Teacher Training Course Director-Slingerland Institute,
Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine-Department of Pediatrics-University of California-San Francisco
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